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Petrified wood is fossilized wood with the mineral composition of jasper or chalcedony - it consists of silicon dioxide only. The organic wood is not changed into stone, but only the shape and structural elements of the wood are preserved.

Petrification of wood occurs only where trees are quickly covered with fine-grained sedimentary rock after their death- their outer structure therefore preserved in a negative form within the enclosing rock. Circulating waters loosen and decompose the wood and replace it gradually with mineral substances. This process occurs so that either the inner structural elements of the wood, the annuals rings, the structure of the cells, even wormholes,...